Welcome to the classroom component of the 2014 National Poetry Month’s education project, Poet-to-Poet. The following series of activities are aligned with the Common Core State Standards, and encourage you and your students to engage in a multimedia experience with the Academy of American Poets Board of Chancellors, a group that represents poetry in America at its best. You can use the series of activities one right after the other, or separate them, as you integrate poetry with other areas of study throughout National Poetry Month. The activities are designed to reach diverse learners through multiple entry points and can be easily adapted further for your particular students.
Aligned with the Common Core Standards/College and Career Anchor Standards, the activities below address the three literacy areas of Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening. The activities also indicate how English lessons can intersect with Science curriculum in inspiring ways.
Reading: Key Ideas and Details, 2; Craft and Structure, 4; Integration of Knowledge and Ideas, 7, 9
Writing: Text Types and Purposes, 3; Production and Distribution of Writing, 5, 6
Speaking and Listening: Comprehension and Collaboration, 1, 2
Language: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use, 4, 5
Interdisciplinary Connections: Science (ecology, environmental issues)
Poem Specific Activity: Introducing the Manatee
- Develop skills of noticing (seeing, hearing, and feeling) to learn about the manatee from a photo, from informational text, and from audio
- Make connections between what they notice and prior knowledge
- Ask their own questions
Warm up: Whip around—Go around the room, asking your students what associations they have to the word manatee.
Tell your students they will be studying an excerpt of the poem “Manatee/Humanity” by Anne Waldman in both performance and written form as a prelude to writing and performing their own poems.
Note: Depending on the technology capabilities in your classroom, students can work individually, in pairs, or in small groups (on a laptop or iPad), or as a large group with an image projected at the front of the room.
- Go to the National Geographic website photograph of a manatee: (animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/manatee/#).
- Ask students to look at the photograph carefully and write down what they notice about the manatee. What do they see? Can they make any connections to other things they have seen or about which they have read? What questions do they have?
- Ask them to read the short description of manatees that is under the photograph. As they read, they should jot down important words that jump out at them, connections they have to prior knowledge, answers to some of their questions, and new questions that occur to them.
- Now ask your students to listen to the audio of the manatee on the web page. Again, they should jot down what they hear. What connections can they make to these sounds? What new questions do they have?
- Conduct a large group discussion: What are their responses to what they have seen, read, and heard? What do they think/feel about the manatee now that they know these details?
Using Skills of Perception
- Continue to develop skills from Section I
- Explore the similarities/differences among the things they can learn from different kinds of media
- Find meaning in a poem and provide evidence for their interpretations
- Figure out the meaning of vocabulary words using contextual clues and prior connections
- Ask your students to watch the video of Anne Waldman reading her poem at least two times. (They should not, at this time, watch her answer the question, “What inspired you to write this poem?” They will do this later.)
- In the second viewing, students should write down what they notice about the reading. This should include what they hear, see, and feel.
- Have your students share what they wrote with a partner.
With the same partners, ask your students to read the poem out loud to each other, at least two times.
- After the first reading, they should write down what jumps out at them in the poem (what they notice).
- After the second reading, they should write down any connections they see between what they are reading and prior knowledge.
- Ask two pairs to form groups of four to share what they wrote about what they noticed and the connections they made.
- After this viewing/reading process, the students should write down any questions they have about the poem, including how the poem was written, read, or what the poem might mean.
- Back in their groups of four, students should discuss how what they learned from the poem was similar to, or different from, what they learned from their engagement with the photograph, reading the informational text, or the audio.
- Large group synthesis: Conduct a large group discussion, listing noticings, connections, and questions on the board. Have this lead to a discussion of what students think the poem means based on evidence they provide from the first three activities. The point is not to reach consensus, but rather to invite each student to engage with the poem from his/her vantage point.
Ask your students to keep a running list on the front board in your room of the words they have read and heard that they do not understand. You can either conduct a separate vocabulary lesson on these words where students try to figure out their meaning from context and connections, or go over vocabulary as you progress through the other activities.
Fusing Inspiration and Experience
- Develop an understanding of some ways poets find inspiration
- Identify people, places, or objects that inspire them
- Use detailed language to describe something they imagine
- Ask your students to go back to the online video of Anne Waldman reading from "Manatee/Humanity" to see what Waldman says was her inspiration for the poem.
- Have the students write new things they learned in their notebooks.
- In small groups (perhaps four people) ask them to discuss why she wrote the poem.
- Ask your students to view the video of Naomi Shihab Nye reading “A Valentine for Ernest Mann.” They should also, at this time, watch her answer to the question, “What inspired you to write this poem?”
- Ask your students to view the video of Naomi Shihab Nye a second time and write down why she wrote this poem and what her sources of inspiration were.
- In small groups of no more than four, ask them to talk about the similarities and differences between what inspired Anne Waldman to write her poem, and what inspired Naomi Shihab Nye.
- Large group report in: Conduct a large group discussion on what inspired the two poets and the similarities and differences.
Ask your students to think about where their poems “hide.” What “speaks to them,” the way the subjects of the poems they just saw/read spoke to their authors, inspiring them to write about those subjects? If they have difficulty, you can ask your students to answer the following questions:
- What do they love—people, places, and things?
- What do they think is beautiful?
- What do they hate?
- What makes them scared?
- What makes them angry?
Ask them to write a list of these things and pick the one that seems the most important to them. In their imaginations:
- What do they notice (using all their senses) about this person, place, or object? Write down these details.
- What connections can they make to this person, place, or object? Write these down.
- What questions do they have about this person, place, or object? Write these down.
- How do they feel about this person, place, or thing? Write down this emotion.
Poem Specific Activity: Developing Poetic Techniques and Presentation Skills
- Identify examples of alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhyming, and off-rhyme in Manatee/Humanity
- Write a first draft of a poem about a person, place, or object that inspires them
- Revise their poem after peer consultation
- Rehearse some performance techniques they observed in the online video
- Read and perform their poem
Explain to your class that before they write their own poems, they will:
- Explore some of the poetic techniques Anne Waldman uses in "Manatee/Humanity"
- Practice presentation techniques
Warm up: Ask your students to stand in a circle. Tell them you are going to say a short sentence and you would like them to repeat what you say—but they have to say it somewhat differently than you did. Start by saying “The roiling river rolls slowly” any way you want, and then go around the circle.
Now your students will experience Anne Waldman’s online performance once more, this time by listening at least twice to the sounds of the words. Have them close their eyes as they listen.
- At the end of each listening, ask them to write down the words they remember the most. What sounds did they hear repeated?
- With partners, ask them to share the sounds and words they remembered the most.
- In a large group discussion, ask your students what they heard and keep a running record of the sounds and the words on the board at the front of the room.
- You can use this list of words and sounds as an introduction to the use of repetition, onomatopoeia, alliteration, rhyme, and off-rhyme. (You can choose to introduce all or some of these terms.) The purpose of this discussion is to give your students some tools they can use in their writing.
Ask your students to find a quiet space in which to write about the person, place, or object that has their “hidden poem.” They can use some of the techniques Anne Waldman used in "Manatee/Humanity" or other poetic elements with which they are familiar.
The critical point is that your students write about something that inspires them. They may need to stare out the window, go to the library, or write at home. Inspiration comes in its own way at its own time, so we ask you to give your students opportunity for the poetic space they need.
Place your students in small groups no larger than four people. (If they have regular writing groups, it’s fine to use them.) In these groups:
- Each student reads her/his poem aloud.
- After each student reads, the others give supportive criticism by starting with a strength of the poem, and then asking questions or stating things that were not clear to them.
- Students revise their poems after this group work.
Return again to the online video of Anne Waldman.
- Ask your students to watch how her body moves when she speaks and how she uses her voice.
- Have them jot down what they notice as they watch the video.
In pairs, ask your students to practice performing their poems for each other. One person should perform; the other should watch and give criticism. Then they should switch roles.
As a culminating activity, you can ask your class for volunteers willing to present their poetry performances to the whole class. You might want to invite other students to see the performance as well, or to hold a Poetry Café after school for the school community.
You can adapt the above activities to viewing/reading any of the other poems in the Poet-to-Poet collection. Of course, you will have to change the poem-specific activities, such as the preparation photo, and the poetic elements studied, but the viewing and reading and imagining activities (Sections II and III) can be easily adapted.
Poets and Their Poems:
Juan Felipe Herrera, “Five Directions to My House”
Edward Hirsch, “Fast Break”
Jane Hirshfield, “My Skeleton”
Naomi Shihab Nye, “A Valentine for Ernest Mann”
Ron Padgett, “Nothing in That Drawer”
Arthur Sze, “The Owl”
Arthur Sze, “Here”
Anne Waldman, from "Manatee/Humanity”
The Academy of American Poets encourages you to submit your students' response poems for possible publication on Poets.org in May 2014. Send all poems via email at [email protected] by April 30, 2014. Please include each student's name, the poet that inspired his or her poem, and the name of your school.