alliteration: the repetition of consonant sounds, particularly at the beginning of words
Example: ". . . like a wanderer white”

allusion: a reference to a person, event, or work outside the poem or literary piece
Example: “Shining, it was Adam and maiden”

assonance: the repetition of similar vowel sounds
Example: “I rose and told him of my woe”

elision: the omission of an unstressed vowel or syllable to preserve the meter of a line of poetry
Example: “Th’ expense of spirit in a waste of shame”

imagery: word or sequence of words representing a sensory experience (visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and gustatory)
Example: “bells knelling classes to a close” (auditory)

irony: a contradiction of expectation between what is said and what is meant (verbal irony) or what is expected in a particular circumstance or behavior (situational), or when a character speaks in ignorance of a situation known to the audience or other characters (dramatic)
Example: “Time held me green and dying / Though I sang in my chains like the sea”

onomatopoeia: the use of words to imitate the sounds they describe
Example: “crack” or “whir”

slant rhyme (off rhyme, half rhyme, imperfect rhyme): rhyme formed with words with similar but not wholly identical sounds
Example: barn / yard

synesthesia: an attempt to fuse different senses by describing one in terms of another
Example: the sound of her voice was sweet

symbol: an object or action that stands for something beyond itself
Example: white = innocence, purity, hope